Precise Agriculture (Smart Farming)



Sustainable agriculture in the context of development efforts has to meet production efficiency, sensitivity of ecosystems, appropriate technology, and maintenance of the environment, cultural diversity and satisfaction of the basic needs. In 1965 green revolution succeeded in India to increase the farmer’s income, yield of major crops and made India self-reliant in food production. Now Modern agricultural management practices are changing from assuming homogenous fields to attempting to address field variability by dividing the field into smaller zones and managing these zones separately Precision agriculture has focused on the development of techniques that primarily aid the convention farming system.

The Precise Agriculture takes an in-depth look at farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. The goals set here are to define a decision support system for whole farm management, in order to optimize returns on inputs, all while ensuring that resources are protected and preserved by utilizing technological capabilities such as, data collection and analysis, which can be displayed in a variety of devices: cellular, computer and all types of remote control and IoT.

PA (Precise Agriculture) is a smart farm management. Typically the varied nature of the terrain of a farm would mean managing these with accuracy, which result in reduced inputs
and costs subsequently growing more food. A farmer needs to take 40 odd decisions over a crop cycle, from pre-harvesting to post-harvesting phases. Precision farming helps a farmer reach an informed and a scientific decision in each of these 40 odd decisions he makes.
A rather quiet revolution is happening in the field of agriculture i.e. precision agriculture (PA). In today’s Internet of Things that rules the roost, precision agriculture (PA) is a fitting example of how diverse universes such as a farmland and software can be brought together through ICT. When it comes to farming, yield, productivity and cost of cultivation are as good as the decision a farmer takes with the given data on the field. Now, what if the farmer gets to see all the data from his field and also gets help to take an informed decision? This is where ICT can help achieve the much needed boost of productivity in the Indian farmlands. 

At the soil level, it measures the impedance rate of the soil, moisture, water retention, NPK values and nutrient migration. At the crop level, it measures chlorophyll, susceptibility, plant level
temperature and humidity. And at above soil level, the technology is checking the weather conditions such as ambient temperature, humidity, dew point rainfall, etc. The outcome of the solution is to record the different aforementioned critical attributes from the field and with the help of Big Data and Analytics predict, prescribe and warn the farmer of the inputs, diseases and weather conditions that help him take accurate mitigation or remediation, right when it is needed.